Difference between revisions of "MABunkerHillMonument"

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(GENERAL JOSEPH WARREN AND BUNKER HILL, 1872)
(PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT, 1860)
 
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Five acres around the monument are to be ornamented with trees, which will form a beautiful promenade.
 
Five acres around the monument are to be ornamented with trees, which will form a beautiful promenade.
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==== COMPLETION OF MONUMENT, 1843 ====
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''From Moore's Freemason's Monthly, Vol. II, No. 9, July 1843, Page 283:''
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The “completion of the Bunker Hill Monument” was celebrated on the 17th ultimo — that day being the sixty-eighth anniversary of the battle. The arrangements were on an extensive scale, and the Procession presented the most magnificent and brilliant pageant ever witnessed in this country. Indeed, if viewed with reference to the character and condition of the individuals who composed it, the history of the world does not furnish its parallel or its equal. The number of persons who joined in it is variously estimated at from thirty to fifty thousand. Among them were the President of the United States, and the members of his Cabinet The escort was composed of “Volunteer Militia,” including several military companies from New York and other States. They made a rich and beautiful display.
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The Procession was arranged in four divisions; at the head of the third of which, and on the right of the other societies, was placed [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=KingSolomon King Solomon’s Lodge].
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This Lodge was constituted in Charlestown, where its meetings arc now regularly held, in 1783, by authority of a Charter from the “Massachusetts Grand Lodge,” of which Gen. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMJsWarren Warren] had been Grand Master. In 1794, the members of the Lodge, in the spirit of patriotism and fraternal affection which have ever distinguished the Craft, resolved to erect a Monument on Bunker Hill to the memory of their “late beloved and Most Worshipful Brother, the Hon. Joseph Warren, and his associates, who nobly fell on that memorable spot, in the cause of their country.” The land for the purpose was given by the Hon. James Russell. The Monument erected was a ''Tuscan Pillar'', eighteen feet high. On the top was placed an Urn, with the initials of Gen. Warren, enclosed in the Square and Compass. Its coat was about one thousand dollars.
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The Lodge continued to keep this Monument in repair, until the year 1825, when, through the patriotic exertions of some distinguished gentlemen of Boston, the Bunker Hill “Monument Association” was formed, and tho erection of a more enduring Monument was commenced. A more ''enduring'' Monument. Not one emanating in a purer patriotism, or breathing a holier veneration for the memories and the virtues of the illustrious patriots, who, by their blood, have consecrated for all coming generations, the spot where it stood, and where its successor now stands, pointing, like the finger of time, to the everlasting Lodge, where the Supreme Grand Master forever presides.
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King Solomon’s Lodge was among the first to favor and forward the new undertaking, by generously tendering to the Association, as a donation, its own Monument, and the land on which it stood. It subsequently, in common with other Masonic societies, made large pecuniary contributions towards the completion of the work.It was in consideration of these facts, that the committee of arrangements for the celebration, were led to assign to this Lodge, the distinguished and honorable station which it occupied in the Procession. They also furnish a sufficient reason why it was proper that it should appear as the principal Masonic body, in preference to the Grand Lodge.
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Our only cause of regret is, that Mr. Webster, as the orator of the day, did not think the services of this Lodge, nor the relation in which it stood to the occasion, of sufficient importance to entitle it to his notice. He very properly alluded to the assistance which had been rendered by various associations and individuals. But he could not find one word of thanks, not one poor expression of gratitude, for the Lodge which was the first to erect a Pillar to the virtues of their patriotic Brothers, on whose bones he was himself erecting a monument to bis own fame!
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He was not ignorant of the facts here stated, for he had been furnished with them. He could not have forgotten them, for the Lodge was before him. He could not have forgotten them, for he was surrounded by aged and venerable Brethren, decked in tho paraphernalia of the Order,— some of whom were his personal acquaintances,— gentlemen who had largely contributed of their talents and influence to elevate him to the commanding position he now occupies,—and whom he knew to have been engaged in the revolutionary struggle, in achieving the events which he was so eloquently eulogizing. ''(Hon. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMRussell Benjamin Russell], and Col. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=MAGLHPurkitt Henry Purkitt] of Boston, are here particularly alluded to. They, with Mr. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMSoley Soley], of Charlestown, and Maj. Hutchings, of Concord, N. H., sat on the platform near Mr. Webster while he was speaking.)'' He could not have forgotten them, for the aged Brother ''(Mr. Justice Soley)'' who had the happiness and the honor to pronounce the address at the completion and dedication of the ''first'' Monument, ''sat by his side!''
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There were about seven hundred Masons in the Procession who wore their regalia, and probably three times that number who did not. It was not designed to be a general muster of the Fraternity. Those who appeared were the guests of King Solomon’s Lodge. Had the Grand Lodge assumed the direction, the number present would have been very large. That honor however more properly belonged to the Lodge in whose hands it was placed; and well and fitly were the responsible duties entrusted to it discharged. The officers and members, with W. Brother Francis L. Raymond as their Master, appeared in entirely new and beautiful regalia. In their midst were the elective officers of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the grand officers of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire, and delegates from several of the other Grand Lodges in the New England States, in their rich and showy dresses.
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Immediately after King Solomon’s Lodge, came the Boston Encampment of Knights Templars, in full costume, under command of Sir [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=MAGLJHammatt John B. Hammatt]. They appeared with full ranks, and attracted much attention. Their dress, though sombre, is rich and imposing. Next followed St Andrew’s Royal Arch Chapter, with Comp. Hugh H. Tuttle, H. P., at their head. This being the senior Chapter in the State, the Companions generally rallied under its banner. We also noticed the banner of St Paul’s Chapter; and the banner of the Grand Chapter was present by permission. This portion of the procession made a brilliant display; and was succeeded by the following Lodges with their banners, arranged agreeably to the dates of their respective Charters:— [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=StJohnB St John’s], [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=StAndrew St. Andrew’s], [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=MassachusettsLodge Massachusetts], and [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=MountLebanon Mount Lebanon], of Boston,—[http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=Middlesex Middlesex], Framingham; [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=StarEast1 Star-in-the-East], New Bedford; [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=Meridian Meridian], Needham ; [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=OliveBranch Olive Branch], Sutton; [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=RisingStar Rising Star], Stoughton.
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In a barouche, provided for the purpose, were four aged and highly respectable Brethren,— three of them wearing the regalia of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, viz.: Hon. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMRussell Benj. Russell], Past Grand Master, and a soldier of tho revolution; [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMSoley John Soley], Esq., also a Past Grand Master, and Col. [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=MAGLHPurkitt Henry Purkitt], a Past Grand Warden, a revolutionary soldier, and one of the few surviving members of the “Boston Tea Party.” The fourth Brother was Maj. Hutchings, a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire. Major Russell wore the Masonic Apron, formerly belonging to Gen. Joseph Warren. This apron was also worn at the laying of the corner stone of the Monument We hope to obtain it for the Grand Lodge of this State, when it will be put in frame and carefully preserved.
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The procession was arranged and conducted under the direction of Brother [http://masonicgenealogy.com/MediaWiki/index.php?title=GMLewis Winslow Lewis, Jr.] The arrangements were all admirably made and executed, and to the efficiency of the Marshal and his assistants are the Brethren greatly indebted for the regularity and order which distinguished this, as well as every other division of the great procession.
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The day was one of the finest of the season, and everything passed off to the entire satisfaction of all parties. The Masonic part of the procession was everywhere well and kindly received. We heard not one offensive expression from any source. On the contrary, many words of congratulation reached our ear, and the carriage in which Maj. Russell and his venerable associates rode, was received throughout the whole line of the procession with frequent and hearty cheers. It was literally filled with bouquets. “King Solomon’s Lodge” and “the Masons” greeted us on all sides, and everywhere in the accents of friendship, of sympathy for the wrongs we have suffered, of encouragement for the future. The papers, we believe without an exception, have spoken cheeringly and kindly of us. True our whilom Brother of the Boston ''Courier'' could see but old men in the procession; but this is probably to be attributed to an obliquity of vision, to attacks of which our amicable coNtemporary is subject The following remarks from the pen of Miss Walter, the accomplished editor of the Boston ''Transcript'', will commend themselves and the writer to our readers. With them we close our brief and hastily written notice of this interesting and patriotic celebration.
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“The various Masonic Lodges that united in the procession, formed another interesting, and, at this period, a novel feature in the long line of public associations. In the remark, that ''where Masonry was, there was Liberty and Benevolence'' (made by the good and lamented Lafayette, on his last visit to Boston) be tree, the public appearance of this fraternity, after an interval of retirement, may he deemed a happy omen of the indissoluble ties and unity of social brotherhood. The occasion was peculiarly auspicious, and, whilst the eye gazed upon the living, memory called to mind the names of the illustrious dead who had been associated as Brethren— Washington, Lafayette, Warren, Franklin, Clinton, Brooks, Bigelow, and Marshall— men of principle themselves, and staunch upholders of the principles of Masonry. King Solomon’s Lodge, the first to erect a Monument on Bunker Hill to the memory of Gen. Warren, their Grand Master, was regarded with unusual interest With this Lodge, rode in an elegant barouche, four venerable members— Henry Purkitt, John Soley, Major Hutchings, of N. H., and Benjamin Russell, Esq., the last of whom wore the apron which was part of the regalia worn by Gen. Warren, when Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.”
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==== PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT, 1860 ====
 
==== PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT, 1860 ====

Latest revision as of 13:51, 25 June 2020

THE BUNKER HILL MONUMENT

BunkerHillMonument.jpg
Bunker Hill Monument

THE JOSEPH WARREN MONUMENT, 1828

From Amaranth, or Masonic Garland, Vol. I, No. 3, June 1828, Page 65:

BunkerHill1_1828.jpg

Gen. Warren was appointed Grand Master of Masons in Boston, and within one hundred miles of the same, by virtue of a commission from the Right Honorable and Most Worshipful George, Earl of Dalhousie, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, in December 5769; and in 1773, a commission was received from the Rt. H. and M. W. Patrick, Earl of Dumphries, Grand Master of Masons in Scotland, under date of March 3, 1772, appointing him G. Master of Masons for the "Continent of America." He held this oflice and discharged its duties, not merely in a manner honorable to himself, but to the great satisfaction and lasting benefit of the fraternity, until the day of his premature death. His signature is fixed to several charters now in existence, and it is regarded as a venerated relick.

Gen. Warren was born in Roxbury, Mass. A. D. 1740. He graduated at Harvard College in 1759, and turned his attention to medical studies ; for the practice of which he was soon qualified. In his profession he was among the most eminent. His fine address, observes his biographer, as well as his attention to philosophy and the belle-lettres, gained him the esteem and regard of the polite and learned ; while his frank, open disposition and obliging attention lo persons under various circumstances of human distress, caused him to be greatly beloved by those who tread the humble walks of life. Charitable and generous, he fed the hungry, clothed the naked, and administered the healing balm to the afflicted. But nature designed him for a different and more active sphere. At the commencement of difficulties between the colonics and mother country, he had an opportunity to shew his taste as a fine writer, and also his eloquence and patriotic zeal. He was in the class of bold politicians, as they were then distinguished from the modern whigs.— He despised the suppliant tone of children to mother Britain. His maxim was that, "every kind of taxation was complete tyranny," on the part of England. He watched over the interests of his country with the earnestness of a faithful guardian ; and his vigilance increased with every alarm. When the American army first assembled at Cambridge, and was in confusion, Warren's exertions and weight of character restored order in the camp, and inspired the soldiers with a zeal that led them on to Independence. From the year 1768, he was a principal member of a secret meeting or caucus in Boston, which had great influence on the concerns of the country. With all his boldness and decision and zeal, he was circumspect and wise. In this assembly, the plans of defence were matured. After the destruction of the tea, it was no longer kept secret.

He was twice chosen the public orator of the town, on the anniversary of the massacre, and his orations breathe the energy of a great and daring mind. It was lie, who, on the evening before the battle of Lexington, obtained information cf the intended expedition against Concord, and at ten o'clock at night, dispatched an express to Messrs. Hancock and Adams, who were at Lexington, to warn them of their danger. Ho himself, on the next day, the memorable nineteenth of April, was very active. It is said, in Gen. Heath's memoirs, that a ball took off part of his oarlock. After the departure of Hancock to Congress, he was chosen president, of the provincial Congress in this place. Four days previous to the battle of Bunker's or Breed's Hill, he received his commission of Major General. When the intrenchments were made upon the fatal spot, to encourage the men within the lines, he went down from Cambridge and joined them as a volunteer Qn the eventful day of the battle, June 17th. Just as the retreat commenced, a ball struck him on the head, and lie died in the trenches, aged thirty-five years. He was the first victim of rank that fell in the struggle with Great Britain; and is numbered among the "illustrious dead," as one who stands pre-eminent for his virtues, his talents, his patriotism and self-devotedness ; whose consecrated niche in the temple of Fame will be sought and reverenced by every son and daughter of America; and our children's children, even to the fiftieth generation, shall be taught to lisp the name of Warren.

During the short period that our distinguished brother presided over the interests of the fraternity in America, notwithstanding the disturbed and unsettled state of public feeling, Masonry nourished, and increased in numbers and respectability. His loss then was a severe blow to the institution. By it, the Lodges were again deprived of ahead. Difficulties arose respecting the extent of the powers of the Grand Lodge; of its capacity to perform its usual functions; and confusion and disorder followed. The meetings were suspended during the occupancy of Boston by the British, but immediately on its evacuation, and previous to any regular communication; and we may say, previous to the adjustment of the existing difficulties; the brethren, influenced by a pious regard to the memory of their late illustrious and revered Grand Master, were induced to search for his body; which, in the hurry and bustle of a field of battle, had been indiscriminately buried on the spot where he breathed out his soul to him who gave it. They accordingly repaired to the place; and by the direction of a person who was on the ground at the time of his burial, a spot was discovered where the earth had been recently turned up. On removing the turf and opening the grave, (which was on the brow of the hill, adjacent to a small cluster of springs) the remains were discovered. Though in a mangled condition, they were identified by means of an artificial tooth, and some o(her marks known to his friends. Having been raised, the corpse was conveyed, with all due respect and solemnity, to the State House in this city; from whence, by a large and respectable concourse of the brotherhood, with the late Grand Officers attending in procession, the mortal remains were carried to the Stone Chapel, where an animated eulogium was pronounced.

The following extract from the answer of John Adams, President of the United States, to an address from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in 1798, respecting the aspersions of Professor Robison, bears unequivocal testimony to the character of Gen. Warren, and to the value of the institution:

"Many of my best friends have been masons, and two of them, my professional patrons, the learned Gridley, and my intimate friend, your immortal Warren, whose life and death were lessons and examples of patriotism and philanthropy, were Grand Masters; yet so it has happened, that I had never the felicity to be initiated. Such examples as these, and a greater still in my venerable predecessor, {Washington} would have been sufficient to induce me to hold the institution and fraternity in esteem and honor, as favorable to the support of civil authority, if I had not known their love of fine arts, their delight in hospitality and devotion to humanity."

The candid and liberal sentiments exhibited in this short extract, deserve to be inscribed on the tablet of masonry in 'letters of gold.' They teach a lesson to our enemies ; to the bigoted and narrow-minded, who are incessantly assailing us with their puerile and pointless missiles, that should forever quiet or sink them into merited contempt. Men, of little mental capacity, are incompetent duly to appreciate the worth or insignificance of any matter out of the ordinary course of events: such, generally speaking, are the opponents of Freemasonry. But they are entirely harmless;— they may cause momentary uneasiness, but nothing more;—they have neither mind nor judgment enough to produce any serious or permanent effect; if they had, they would be enabled to comprehend the nature of the institution and, knowing its worth, would scorn its traducers.

From Amaranth, or Masonic Garland, Vol. I, No. 6, September 1828, Page 161:

BunkerHill2_1828.jpg

In our June number, (page sixty-five) we gave a view of the old
 monument, erected by King Solomon's Lodge, in honor of our illus
trious brother, Gen. Joseph Warren. We now present our readers
 with a correct drawing of the new monument, as it will appear
 when finished. In describing it, we shall quote our friends of the
 Evening Bulletin and the Times:—

"The site of the monument is
 not far from that of the old Tuscan pillar erected in memory of
 Gen. Warren, in 1788, by his Masonic brethren, but now demolish
ed. It is about two miles from the centre of the city of Boston, on an open piece of ground, elevated about 70 feet, commanding a full view of the city and its harbour, and an extensive and beautiful prospect of the surrounding country. Looking cast, the spectator beholds before him in the distance, a great portion of Boston harbor, gemmed with numerous islets, and alive with swarms of naval craft of all classes, moving in various directions, and exhibiting a singularly animated contrast to the tranquil forest and mountain scenery, interspersed with quiet villages, in the rear ground.—A little to the right, rises the now magnificent metropolis, spreading its neighbourly bridges across Charles river to the main land." The corner stone was laid by Gen. Lafayette on the 17th of June, 1825, the day that completed the half century from that on which the battle of Bunker Hill was fought. The depth however, at which it was laid, being insufficient to resist the action of the frost, it was taken up, the foundation sunk, the stone relaid, and on the 21st July, 1827, the base, 50 feet in diameter, was completed.—Since that time the monument has been raised ten courses above the surface of the earth, and is now progressing.

The monument will be 220 feet in height. From its summit, the surrounding country and the ocean to the distance of many miles, may be seen, and will afford one of the most delightful prospects in the United States. The exterior of the monument, "it is already known, is to have four equal faces, tapering very gradually from its base upwards ; but the interior wall is circular, between which and a hollow cone in the centre, the steps leading to the summit, more than 300 in number, are to be fixed."

The association own fifteen acres of land around the monument, which has already advanced in value very considerably from the original cost, and every step taken to complete the work, increases its value.

Five acres around the monument are to be ornamented with trees, which will form a beautiful promenade.

COMPLETION OF MONUMENT, 1843

From Moore's Freemason's Monthly, Vol. II, No. 9, July 1843, Page 283:

The “completion of the Bunker Hill Monument” was celebrated on the 17th ultimo — that day being the sixty-eighth anniversary of the battle. The arrangements were on an extensive scale, and the Procession presented the most magnificent and brilliant pageant ever witnessed in this country. Indeed, if viewed with reference to the character and condition of the individuals who composed it, the history of the world does not furnish its parallel or its equal. The number of persons who joined in it is variously estimated at from thirty to fifty thousand. Among them were the President of the United States, and the members of his Cabinet The escort was composed of “Volunteer Militia,” including several military companies from New York and other States. They made a rich and beautiful display.

The Procession was arranged in four divisions; at the head of the third of which, and on the right of the other societies, was placed King Solomon’s Lodge.

This Lodge was constituted in Charlestown, where its meetings arc now regularly held, in 1783, by authority of a Charter from the “Massachusetts Grand Lodge,” of which Gen. Warren had been Grand Master. In 1794, the members of the Lodge, in the spirit of patriotism and fraternal affection which have ever distinguished the Craft, resolved to erect a Monument on Bunker Hill to the memory of their “late beloved and Most Worshipful Brother, the Hon. Joseph Warren, and his associates, who nobly fell on that memorable spot, in the cause of their country.” The land for the purpose was given by the Hon. James Russell. The Monument erected was a Tuscan Pillar, eighteen feet high. On the top was placed an Urn, with the initials of Gen. Warren, enclosed in the Square and Compass. Its coat was about one thousand dollars.

The Lodge continued to keep this Monument in repair, until the year 1825, when, through the patriotic exertions of some distinguished gentlemen of Boston, the Bunker Hill “Monument Association” was formed, and tho erection of a more enduring Monument was commenced. A more enduring Monument. Not one emanating in a purer patriotism, or breathing a holier veneration for the memories and the virtues of the illustrious patriots, who, by their blood, have consecrated for all coming generations, the spot where it stood, and where its successor now stands, pointing, like the finger of time, to the everlasting Lodge, where the Supreme Grand Master forever presides.

King Solomon’s Lodge was among the first to favor and forward the new undertaking, by generously tendering to the Association, as a donation, its own Monument, and the land on which it stood. It subsequently, in common with other Masonic societies, made large pecuniary contributions towards the completion of the work.It was in consideration of these facts, that the committee of arrangements for the celebration, were led to assign to this Lodge, the distinguished and honorable station which it occupied in the Procession. They also furnish a sufficient reason why it was proper that it should appear as the principal Masonic body, in preference to the Grand Lodge.

Our only cause of regret is, that Mr. Webster, as the orator of the day, did not think the services of this Lodge, nor the relation in which it stood to the occasion, of sufficient importance to entitle it to his notice. He very properly alluded to the assistance which had been rendered by various associations and individuals. But he could not find one word of thanks, not one poor expression of gratitude, for the Lodge which was the first to erect a Pillar to the virtues of their patriotic Brothers, on whose bones he was himself erecting a monument to bis own fame!

He was not ignorant of the facts here stated, for he had been furnished with them. He could not have forgotten them, for the Lodge was before him. He could not have forgotten them, for he was surrounded by aged and venerable Brethren, decked in tho paraphernalia of the Order,— some of whom were his personal acquaintances,— gentlemen who had largely contributed of their talents and influence to elevate him to the commanding position he now occupies,—and whom he knew to have been engaged in the revolutionary struggle, in achieving the events which he was so eloquently eulogizing. (Hon. Benjamin Russell, and Col. Henry Purkitt of Boston, are here particularly alluded to. They, with Mr. Soley, of Charlestown, and Maj. Hutchings, of Concord, N. H., sat on the platform near Mr. Webster while he was speaking.) He could not have forgotten them, for the aged Brother (Mr. Justice Soley) who had the happiness and the honor to pronounce the address at the completion and dedication of the first Monument, sat by his side!

There were about seven hundred Masons in the Procession who wore their regalia, and probably three times that number who did not. It was not designed to be a general muster of the Fraternity. Those who appeared were the guests of King Solomon’s Lodge. Had the Grand Lodge assumed the direction, the number present would have been very large. That honor however more properly belonged to the Lodge in whose hands it was placed; and well and fitly were the responsible duties entrusted to it discharged. The officers and members, with W. Brother Francis L. Raymond as their Master, appeared in entirely new and beautiful regalia. In their midst were the elective officers of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, the grand officers of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire, and delegates from several of the other Grand Lodges in the New England States, in their rich and showy dresses.

Immediately after King Solomon’s Lodge, came the Boston Encampment of Knights Templars, in full costume, under command of Sir John B. Hammatt. They appeared with full ranks, and attracted much attention. Their dress, though sombre, is rich and imposing. Next followed St Andrew’s Royal Arch Chapter, with Comp. Hugh H. Tuttle, H. P., at their head. This being the senior Chapter in the State, the Companions generally rallied under its banner. We also noticed the banner of St Paul’s Chapter; and the banner of the Grand Chapter was present by permission. This portion of the procession made a brilliant display; and was succeeded by the following Lodges with their banners, arranged agreeably to the dates of their respective Charters:— St John’s, St. Andrew’s, Massachusetts, and Mount Lebanon, of Boston,—Middlesex, Framingham; Star-in-the-East, New Bedford; Meridian, Needham ; Olive Branch, Sutton; Rising Star, Stoughton.

In a barouche, provided for the purpose, were four aged and highly respectable Brethren,— three of them wearing the regalia of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, viz.: Hon. Benj. Russell, Past Grand Master, and a soldier of tho revolution; John Soley, Esq., also a Past Grand Master, and Col. Henry Purkitt, a Past Grand Warden, a revolutionary soldier, and one of the few surviving members of the “Boston Tea Party.” The fourth Brother was Maj. Hutchings, a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire. Major Russell wore the Masonic Apron, formerly belonging to Gen. Joseph Warren. This apron was also worn at the laying of the corner stone of the Monument We hope to obtain it for the Grand Lodge of this State, when it will be put in frame and carefully preserved.

The procession was arranged and conducted under the direction of Brother Winslow Lewis, Jr. The arrangements were all admirably made and executed, and to the efficiency of the Marshal and his assistants are the Brethren greatly indebted for the regularity and order which distinguished this, as well as every other division of the great procession.

The day was one of the finest of the season, and everything passed off to the entire satisfaction of all parties. The Masonic part of the procession was everywhere well and kindly received. We heard not one offensive expression from any source. On the contrary, many words of congratulation reached our ear, and the carriage in which Maj. Russell and his venerable associates rode, was received throughout the whole line of the procession with frequent and hearty cheers. It was literally filled with bouquets. “King Solomon’s Lodge” and “the Masons” greeted us on all sides, and everywhere in the accents of friendship, of sympathy for the wrongs we have suffered, of encouragement for the future. The papers, we believe without an exception, have spoken cheeringly and kindly of us. True our whilom Brother of the Boston Courier could see but old men in the procession; but this is probably to be attributed to an obliquity of vision, to attacks of which our amicable coNtemporary is subject The following remarks from the pen of Miss Walter, the accomplished editor of the Boston Transcript, will commend themselves and the writer to our readers. With them we close our brief and hastily written notice of this interesting and patriotic celebration.

“The various Masonic Lodges that united in the procession, formed another interesting, and, at this period, a novel feature in the long line of public associations. In the remark, that where Masonry was, there was Liberty and Benevolence (made by the good and lamented Lafayette, on his last visit to Boston) be tree, the public appearance of this fraternity, after an interval of retirement, may he deemed a happy omen of the indissoluble ties and unity of social brotherhood. The occasion was peculiarly auspicious, and, whilst the eye gazed upon the living, memory called to mind the names of the illustrious dead who had been associated as Brethren— Washington, Lafayette, Warren, Franklin, Clinton, Brooks, Bigelow, and Marshall— men of principle themselves, and staunch upholders of the principles of Masonry. King Solomon’s Lodge, the first to erect a Monument on Bunker Hill to the memory of Gen. Warren, their Grand Master, was regarded with unusual interest With this Lodge, rode in an elegant barouche, four venerable members— Henry Purkitt, John Soley, Major Hutchings, of N. H., and Benjamin Russell, Esq., the last of whom wore the apron which was part of the regalia worn by Gen. Warren, when Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.”

PRINCE OF WALES' VISIT, 1860

From Moore's Freemason's Monthly, Vol. XX, No. 1, November 1860, Page 18:

The Prince of Wales and his suite visited Bunker Hill on the 12th October, at the invitation of the President of the Bunker Hill Monument Association, Bro. G. Washington Warren, by whom they were suitably received.

"The party," says the Aurora, "then walked to the entrance of the monument and examined the interior, looking up the cone to the top, and then the President explained to the Prince the history of the original Masonic Monument, a copy of which in marble, stands in the centre of the Obelisk, and turning to the Duke of Newcastle, who is Provincial Grand Master of Freemasons, Mr. Warren observed, "This may perhaps be specially interesting to your Grace as it relates to Masonry." The Prince not understanding what was said, desired the remark to be repeated, which being done, the Prince said with a smile, "Oh, yes, the Duke is a Freemason." He then passed round the monument, within the enclosure, observed the English and American flags at the top, and inquired the height of the structure. He then made a pleasant remark to President Warren, as to the object of erecting the structure, to which the President made an appropriate reply. The Prince cordially observed, "It is time these old matters were forgotten."

His Honor Mayor Dana proposed to the royal party to make, a further visit to the city, and to visit the Navy Yard, offering to send a message to Com. Hudson, that he might prepare for the reception. But the lateness of the hour, and many other matters remaining to be attended to, prevented their acceptance of the invitation.

Before the party left the premises, President Warren stated to the Duke of Newcastle, that he had caused three copies of the Inauguration of the Statue of Warren to be suitably bound, one copy of which was intended for the Prince, one for Lord Lyons, and one for His Grace, as mementos of the visit of the royal party to Bunker Hill; and the Duke replied that he would be happy to receive and dispose of them as desired

This visit, though suddenly improvised and without the opportunity to make such preparations as would have been gladly desired, and been more generally participated in by our citizens, is a memorable one, and like the visit to the Tomb of Washington, will exemplify to the country the cordial feeling of amity, which happily exists between the government and people of our mother country and our own. Esto perpetua.

GENERAL JOSEPH WARREN AND BUNKER HILL, 1872

From Moore's Freemason's Monthly, Vol. XXXI, No. 10, August 1872, Page 307:

Anything connected with the history of General Warren must be of interest to the American Freemason. The following lines which we find in our scrap-book, were written some fifty-four years ago, after a visit to what was called Breed's Hill. In the remains of the old redoubt stood a monument composed of a brick pedestal, from which arose a wooden shaft of pine surmounted by a Masonic urn. Inserted in the four sides of the column were large slate stones, inscribed with dates of Revolutionary events. One of them contained the following words:

Erected by King Solomon's Lodge,
To the Memory of
Major General Joseph Warren,
Their Most Worshipful Grand Master.

It also contained an extract from one of his popular addresses; "The voice of your fathers' blood cries from the ground: My sons, scorn to be slaves," &c. The stones are deposited in the present Bunker Hill Monument. In 1818, many poplar trees stood near the place:

Why rears yon Urn its lonely head,
Where sweeps the summer's gentle breeze,
Above yon hillock's turfy bed,
In plaintive murmurs through the trees?
Or, why with quiet, pensive tread,
Will thoughtful strangers, drawing near,
The mould'ring slate stone pause to read
Of him who rests in silence there.

'Tis the blest spot where Valor sleeps,
Shaded by wreaths of laurel won —
Where Freedom's guardian Genius keeps
True vigils o'er her gallant son.
Here, once, as at Thermopylae,
The battle shouts of Freedom rose;
Firm as their mountains, and as free,
They nobly braved their country's foes.

No tyrant's purchased slaves were they —
The vassals of no feudal lord;
Their country's call they did obey,
And freedom blessed their righteous sword.
Fair rose the morn on that array
Where bright in arms their foemen stood;
A sadder sight — the close of day
Beheld that sun go down in blood.

The roar of arms to despot's power
And pride, the fun'ral knell has peal'd:
The blood that flowed that fated hour,
Has freedom's sacred charter sealed.
Long, long, these deeds of spotless fame
Shall swell their country's noblest rhyme;
The ray that gilds her heroes' name,
Gain lustre in the march of time.

Soft be the turf where fall the brave;
Peaceful their sleep — their battle o'er —
Above their tranquil, grass-grown grave,
Shall war's dread voice be heard no more.
And oft the stranger passing by,
Shall view with honest pride the tomb
Where patriot's sacred relics lie,
And glory's greenest myrtles bloom.

- P. G. Tisdall.

"BUNKER HILL IN THE LAST CENTURY", 1889

From Liberal Freemason, Vol. XIII, No. 9, December 1889, Page 279:

Wor. Bro. A. A. Folsom has handed us an extract from a volume of travels (by William Priest, who Travelled in America, 1793 to 1797. Printed in London, 1802.) of sufficient interest to Masons to be read by them, and we print it as follows.

Boston, October 3d, 1796,

Dear Sir: — The first leisure day after my arrival here, I went to Bunker's Hill, attended by two persons who were spectators of the engagement, and were kind enough to point out and explain a number of particulars I wished to be acquainted with, tor the purpose of enabling me to form a tolerable idea of this famous action. If General Howe meant only to give the Yankies a specimen of British valour, and his contempt of them and their intrenchment, he succeeded in both. His enemies on this side of'the water say, "they gave him a Rowland for his Oliver; that he paid too dear for his victory; that a more prudent general would have found a better place to land the troops, and a safer mode of attack; that the price he paid for this little redoubt ought to have convinced him he could not afford even to bid for Dorchester Heights, if once the Americans got possession of those hills; that he should therefore have fortified them himself; that —" But as nothing is easier than to see all these thats when it is too late, 1 shall plague you with no more of them, but conclude with an inscription from a monument on the scene of action.

Erected, 1794, By King Solomon's Lodge of Free MASONS.
Constituted at Charlestown, 1783.
IN MEMORY OF
MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH WARREN
AND HIS BRAVE ASSOCIATES,
Who were Slain on this Memorable Spot,
June 17th, 1775.

"None but they who set a just value on the blessings of Liberty are worthy to enjoy her."

I"n vain we toil'd, in vain we fought,
We bled in vain, if you our offspring
Want valour to repel the assaults of her invaders."

Charles Town settled 1628.
burnt 1775.
rebuilt 1776.

THE MONUMENT TO JOSEPH WARREN, 1919

From New England Craftsman, Vol. XIV, No. 10, July 1919, Page 313:

A Fitting Masonic Tribute

A little way out from the "Athens of America" is seen the great shaft that marks the spot where was fought the first real battle on American soil for what that great Mason, Thomas Paine, called "the rights of man." A ship entering the port of Boston may see this from many miles at sea. Here fell a young physician but forty years of age that posterity might forever have republican government and free schools from the despotic hands of the sectarian bigot or the political tyrant.

Christ church, on old Salem Street, and Faneuil Hall in Boston tell the glories of Major-General Joseph Warren.

The fathers of the American Revolution were Masons, Samuel Adams, James Otis, Patrick Henry, Peter Faneuil, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Treat Paine, Matthew Thornton, Seth Warren, Thomas Paine and John Paul Jones are but a few of the many leaders of the great conflict of human liberty since the Sermon on the Mount who were of the world's most democratic institutions. There were ten Masonic lodges in the Continental Army under General George Washington during the eight years of the war—1775-1783. Without the battle of Breed's Hill (commonly called Bunker Hill), with an insane king on the British throne, George III, Thomas Paine and George Washington, there would have been no war with Great Britain. New England has its Bunker Hill Day June 17, but all America has "Flag Day" June 14.

In the thirteen American colonies at that time, the leading men in all walks of life were Masons. So as it is ordained of Infinite Wisdom that the tiny acorn should precede the mighty oak and the little brook the great river, that Wisdom was no less manifest in humble birth of our American Freemasonry in the good colonial days, a brotherhood where the twentieth century creed-monger and the race despot find no solace or haven of rest. In the dying days of the colonial period, when kingcraft threatened the thirteen (American) colonies, Boston' and vicinity took on "new life." There were three Boston lodges whose membership consisted of "ye best blood of ye colony"—St. John's Lodge, the Lodge of St. Andrew, and the Massachusetts Lodge. These lodges were well represented at the "Boston Tea Party" of December 16, 1773. They cere also represented at the battles of Concord Bridge, Lexington Green, ind at Bunker Hill. It is to be remembered that it was in Puritan and Pil-rim New England, Newport, R. I., where was established the first Masonic lodge on this continent, and in Boston, nearly a century later, in L720, that there was a lodge working under the law of "Ancient Usage." These two lodges died from the "wreck of time," but still Boston kept a firm grasp on Masonry. The fight on Breed's Hill at Charlestown, Mass. (historically known as Bunker Hill) which took place June 17, 1775, not only fully opened the great war of the American Revolution, but placed in the New World Freemasonry in a category unique in the history of man.

General Israel Putnam, senior officer in command in this celebrate^ battle, had been made a Mason in 1758 in "Crown Point Lodge," when a soldier under the crown. General Joseph Warren, a young Boston physician, was a Past Master of the Lodge of St. Andrew, Boston, and "Grand Master of North America," as commissioned by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. He fell in the battle in the afternoon and was buried in that trench. He was succeeded in command by Colonel William Prescott (whom the writer is proud to own as his great-great-great-uncle), of an old New England family.

Colonel Prescott had been made a Mason in the "Crown Point Lodge" in company with his brother-in-law, Colonel John Hale, M. D. (the writer's great-great-great-grandfather). The British held Boston till the following March 17. After they had sailed from the port, Dr. John Warren, of Harvard University, a brother of the lamented general, took Warren's body from the trench. It was badly decomposed, but was known by a gold tooth and his late wife's wedding ring on his left hand. Dr. John Warren was also a member of one of the well-known old Boston lodges. The wedding ring is now owned by Miss Elizabeth Warren Waldron, of Somerville, Mass., a member of the Order of the Eastern Star in Boston. There were many Masons engaged in the battle, including Colonel John Stark, Captain Henry Dearborn, Colonel Thomas Crafts, General Alexander Scamsell, Captain Michael McClary, and Captain John Brooks. James Otis was in the engagement as a private soldier. Eight well-known Charlestown residents were Dr. Benjamin Frothingham, Eliphalet Newell, Edward Goodwin, David Goodwin, Joseph Cordis, Caleb Swan, and William Calder, members of the Lodge of St. Andrew. These were held in high esteem by Lieutenant-Colonel Paul Revere (also a member of St. Andrew), who had made the famous ride of April 18. 1775, as was Hon. John Hancock (the first signer of the Declaration of Independence). The old lodge of Bunker Hill fame is King Solomon's. Its early life is in itself a rude history, as follows, to wit:

CHARTER

To All the Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons to Whom These Presents Shall Come:

The Most Worshipful John Warren, Esq., Grand Master of Free and Accepted Masons, duly authorized and appointed, and in ample form installed, together with his Grand Warden,

(Seal) Send Greeting:

Whereas, a petition has been presented to us by Benjamin Froth-ingham, Eliphalet Newell, Edward Goodwin, Joseph Cordis, Caleb Swan and William Calder, and Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, resident in Charlestown, in the County of Middlesex and commonwealth of Massachusetts, praying that they, with such others as may think proper to join them, may be elected and constituted a regular lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the name, title and designation of King Solomon's Lodge. with full power to enter apprentices, pass fellow-crafts and raise Master Masons; and that their brother, Josiah Bartlett, be constituted Master; which petition appearing to us as tending to the advancement 0f Ancient Masonry, and the general good of the craft, we have unanimously agreed that the prayer thereof be granted. Know ye, therefore, that we, the Grand Master and Wardens, by virtue of the power and authority aforesaid, reposing special trust and confidence in the prudence, fidelity and skill in Masonry of our beloved brethren above named, have constituted and appointed, and by these presents do constitute and appoint them, the said Josiah Bartlett, Benjamin Frothingham, Eliphalet Newell, Edward Goodwin, David Goodwin, Joseph Cordis, Caleb Swan and William Calder, with others, a regular lodge of Free and Accepted Masons under the name, title and designation of King Solomon's Lodge, hereby giving and granting unto them and their successors full power and authority to meet and convene as Masons within the town of Charles-town aforesaid, to receive and enter apprentices, pass fellow-crafts and raise Master Masons, upon the payment of such modern compositions for the same as may hereafter be determined by said lodge. Also, to take choice of Master, Wardens and other office-bearers annually, or otherwise as they shall see cause; and we do hereby constitute and appoint our worshipful brother Josiah Bartlett, Master; and you are to receive and collect funds for the reliei" of poor and decayed brethren, their widows or children, and in general to transact all matters relating to Masonry which may appear for the good of the craft, according to the ancient usages and custom of Masons.

And we do hereby require the said constituted brethren to attend at the Grand Lodge, or quarterly communication, by themselves or their proxies (which are their Master and Wardens for the time being); and also to keep a fair and regular account of all their proceedings and lay them before the Grand Lodge when required.

And we do hereby enjoin upon our said brethren to behave themselves respectfully and obediently to their superiors in office, and not [to desert said lodge without leave from the Master and Wardens. And ppe do hereby declare the precedence of said lodge in the Grand Lodge and helsewhere to commence from the date of these presents, and require nil Ancient Masons, especially those holding of this Grand Lodge, to acknowledge and receive them and their successors as regular constituted Free and Accepted Masons, and treat them accordingly. Given under our hands and the seal of the Grand Lodge affixed at Boston, New England, this 5th day of September, 1783, and of Masonry 5783.

  • Joseph Webb, G. M.
  • Paul Revere, S. G. W.
  • Thomas Urann, J. G. W.
  • John Symmes, S. G. D.
  • James Avery, J. G. D.
  • William Hoskins, G. S.


  • Received two guineas. John Lowell, G. Treasurer. 5th Sept., 1783.
  • Received half guinea for sealing and recording. Benj. Coolidge, Secretary.
* Received at the same time thirty shillings for the engrossing this charter. James Carter.

The Grand Officers had (in some capacity) served the cause of liberty during the Revolutionary War. Colonel Joseph Webb was the Grand Master during the conflict, but was with the army most of that time. (He commanded for a while at West Point during the Arnold treason) and was in close touch with General Washington throughout the entire war.

Joseph Webb Lodge of Boston is named in his honor and is a most pleasing body to visit. Colonel Paul Revere had been an artillery officer under the crown.

King Solomon's Lodge soon grew to be a mighty body. It met from its conception until a few years ago within five hundred yards from the spot where the "Grand Master of North America" fell in battle.

Dr. Josiah Bartlett, who resided on the "slope of Breed's Hill," was elected its first Master. He was an eminent man of his time. Among its earliest initiates were Dr. Oliver Holden, composer of the world famous hymn "Coronation," and Benjamin Russell (later Grand Master). Commodores John Soley and John Abbott, for whom lodges are named in Massachusetts (note: different John Abbot), were also here made Masons. Dr. Holden was Master 1797-1800. A few years ago his grave was found and is marked by a suitable stone. Dr. Holden wrote Masonic odes on the death of George Washington. Such old New England names as Adams, Snow, Holmes. Goodwin, Coombs, Worcester, Whipple, Hyde, Phipps, Hooper, Stevens, Raymond, Rogers, Bowman, Crowell, Stone, Larkin, Swan, Gregory, Dayton, Hall, Rand, Kendall, Browditch, Merriam, Page, Stearns, Tufts, Payson, Payne, Gates and Eaton are found among its earliest initiates.

In 1794 the lodge erected the "Warren" or original Breed's Hill monument. It cost about $1000 and stood on the spot where the Grand Master had fallen in battle nineteen years before. Benjamin Russell gave the land where now stands the monument. The early records of the lodge read to the effect that the battle was fought in "Brother Benjamin Russell's pasture." This was the first Masonic monument erected in this country.

The author received the Master Mason's degree in this old lodge of Charlestown on September 12, 1893, and is now a life member. The Bunker Hill Monument Association is a child of the same lodge, Brother Russell's "pasture" having been turned over to the association. The writer is also a (life) member of the Bunker Hill Monument Association.

Major-General Joseph Warren, M. D., was "thrice buried." Colonel Joseph Webb was Past Master of the Lodge of St. Andrew. George Richard Gridley (a member of St. John's Lodge of Boston), and Colonel Webb helped to fortify the hill before the battle.

A few years ago King Solomon's Lodge moved to Somerville, once a part of Charlestown, now a beautiful and residential city. Jonathan Harrington, the last survivor of the Battle of Lexington, was raised in this lodge. The membership is over 500 and its bank accounts show several Ejousand dollars in several separate funds at good interest. 1 The seal of this old lodge is of unique construction. Men of all walks nd professions in life make up its thrifty membership. The writer is honorary member of several orders and societies, and has received several degrees from institutions of learning and science, but proudest of all is he of the degrees he received in this one old lodge of the stormy days of the American past. While the mind of man remains rational, stars shine and biography has a charm in civilization, the name of King Solomon's Lodge, a little way out from the once home of the Puritans, will inspire Masonic students and the weary pilgrims to eternity. On June 17 of each year King Solomon's Lodge, through a committee of the oldest Past Masters, places a wreath of flowers on the original "Warren" monument. On each 30th of May (Decoration Day) Abraham Lincoln Camp No. 106, Sons of Veterans, U. S. A. (of which the writer is a member) decorates the "Warren" monument. A toast at fraternal and patriotic gatherings in the Revolutionary Army was to "Warren, Wooster and Montgomery." Warren was the first general to fall in battle, and on that memorable spot was erected the first Masonic monument in America. While the tide ebbs and flows twice in each twenty-four hours and "the flag of the free" floats on the "mighty deep" the rational and liberal world will look with charity, patriotism and respect upon this first Masonic monument.

Charlestown is now a part of Boston. It was settled in 1629 by the three Sprague brothers (one of whom, Ralph Sprague, was one of the senator's emigrant ancestors). These Spragues came with Governor John Winthrop to Salem. Mass., and helped to found Boston, where today Freemasonry is held in highest dignity of any city in these United States.

My gentle reader, be ye aged or in your youth, it will give you a; new lease on life to visit the land of the Puritans and Pilgrims, and while in Boston look over the iron fence on Tremont street into the Granary burial ground, where sleep such friends and Masonic brothers of Joseph Warren as Samuel Adams, John Hancock, James Otis, Paul Revere and Robert Treat Paine. Then go to Breed's Hill and see the statue of Colonel William Prescott, who took up the fight after Warren fell. Then go aloft 273 steps above the "Warren" monument to the top of the great shaft and look out upon the "mighty deep." This great shaft had its cornerstone laid by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts Freemasons with Gus (Brother) Lafayette (32°) in attendance, wearing the apron of the ever-lamented Warren—Pro Patria.

—By Prof. Gilbert Patton Brown, Ph. D., D. C., in the Southern Masonic Journal.

THE OBELISK ON BUNKER HILL, 1924

From New England Craftsman, Vol. XIX, No. 9, June 1924, Page 259:

The ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the Monument which commemorates the Battle of Bunker Hill, by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Masons of Massachusetts. did not take place until June 17th, 1825, fifty years after the battle action. The cause of the delay may be traced to various circumstances. The deranged state of affairs at the end of the Revolutionary War was unfavorable, and the attention of the people was occupied with more pressing demands.— They were busily employed in repairing the damage caused by the war, and it was only by years of industry and economy, that they had arrived at a stage where they felt they could give consideration to such an undertaking. Soon after the second war with Great Britain in 1812, however, public interest was drawn to the subject. A meeting for devising the best mode of accomplishing the object in view, was called by patriotic citizens and met with scant attendance, but as the object became better known, more enthusiasm was manifested and in 1825 a corporation was formed under the name, the Bunker Hill Monument Association, for tlie purpose of erecting an appropriate memorial. An address was made to the public, stating its object, and soliciting subscriptions for funds. There was considerable diversity of opinion as to an appropriate form for the monument and alter a committee was appointed and officers chosen, of which Dr. John C. Warren, a relative of General Warren, was chairman, and Amos Lawrence, treasurer, it was decided to advertise for designs, which resulted in some fifty plans, of various forms and merit, being submitted, of which the obelisk and column seemed to predominate, and were consequently selected as the two motifs from *HU'h to make choice. After much discussion the committee decided on the obelisk, and a design submitted by Solomon Willard, architect of Boston, and based on a model made by Horatio Greenway, a collegian, was approved.

The design of the monument was not determined until July 5th, 1825, five weeks after the ceremony of the laying of the corner stone. The reason for having the ceremony at the time mentioned was because it was desired to have the presence of Lafayette, who was a Mason, and then visiting in the vicinity.

Daniel Webster, a Mason, delivered the oration, and it is conceded that the oration contained the clearest statement to be found anywhere, of the principles underlying the War of American Independence. President Tyler and his cabinet came from Washington for the ceremony.

It is a fact well known to the older architects who practice in New England that at the time it was proposed to build the obelisk in Charlestown to commemorate the Battle of Bunker Hill, it was difficult to find a suitable stone. Boston was surrounded by a primitive formation, and consequently wanting in all the softer kinds of stone commonly used for such purposes. Quincy granite was not then in use, except for rough work, and no successful attempt had then been made in executing moulded and ornamental work in any other kind of granite. The walls of buildings were carried up of granite in ashlar courses and generally crowned with a cornice of wood. Sandstones of different kinds were also used for such purposes, which were brought from distant places. These sand and lime stones were not only expensive, but were defective in substance and color, and when combined with granite gave to the whole a particolored and incongruous appearance. This difficulty has been practically eliminated since then and some of our finest buildings now have many mouldings and ornate carvings executed in granite. A difficulty also existed in obtaining blocks of granite of the size required for large construction, and transportation was a serious problem. The business of quarrying at that time was generally in the hands of those who had neither the means nor the skill which were necessary for carrying on a work of that magnitude in a proper manner. In work intended for monumental use, it is obvious that continuity of substance and color is an important consideration.

The plans and models were examined Inmost of those in the granite business nearby, but no proposal was offered, except by one individual whose price far exceeded the estimate. The committee thereupon decided to purchase a quarry at Quincy and do the work by the day under the superintendence of the architect, Solomon Willard, who was also the architect of the Custom House and other important public and private buildings, and the completed work showed the wisdom of this decision, as it is believed that much money was saved and the work of better quality than if done by contract.

Consideration was given for a monument with a base of 40 feet, but it was agreed that the state of the available funds would not permit of a monument of more than 30 feet and to be 220 feet in height and having a circular stairway to the top. The work was begun at the quarry November 16, 1825, and continued until January, 1829, when it was suspended for want of funds; it was re-commenced on January 17, 1834, when the ladies had raised a fund, and proceeded until November, 1835, when it was again discontinued; in November 1840, work was again started and continued until its completion in 1843, the ladies having again given aid by contributing about $30,000 which they raised through a fair.

The building of the obelisk led to the construction of the first railway in the country and the organization of the Granite Railway Company, Thomas H. Perkins, president. This railway, the motive power of which was oxen, carried the stones from the quarry in Quincy to the shore; they were then put on scows and taken to Deven's Wharf in Charlestown. A special hoisting apparatus of chains and levers for lifting the stones was designed by Almoran Holmes of Boston, a practical seaman and engineer. This apparatus was used for lifting the first 55,000 feet of granite and the remainder was hoisted by steam power. The stones averaged a little more than five tons in weight and were about 12 ft. x 2 1/2 ft. x 2 ft and contained about 55 cubic feet. About 87,000 feet of granite, weighing about 9,000 tons, was used. The total cost of the monument and land was less than one hundred thousand dollars. It could not be built at the present time for less than ten times that amount.

The centennial celebration of the battle of Bunker Hill on June 17th, 1875 was one of the grandest celebrations ever seen in this country. The city, the state and private citizens vied with each other in their efforts to make the event a glorious success. Distinguished guests were present, and man military and civic bodies from nearly all the states participated in the proceedings.

General Charles Devens delivered the oration and Mayor Cobb, Governor Gaston, Col. A. O. Andrews of South Carolina, Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee of Virginia, Gen. W. T. Sherman, Gen. A. E. Burnside and Vice-President Wilson were among the others who spoke.

Gen. Francis A. Osborne was chief marshal of the procession, which was several miles long.

THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL AND THE DEATH OF GENERAL WARREN, 1924

From New England Craftsman, Vol. XIX, No. 9, June 1924, Page 261:

No engagement of the American Revolutionary War possesses an interest so deep and peculiar, or produced consequences so important, as the battle of Bunker Hill; and no other engagement is involved in so much obscurity, perplexity and controversy.

It is remarkable on many accounts,— it being the first great battle of the contest,— in the astonishing resistance made by inexperienced militia against veteran troops,— in the affecting character of its prominent incidents,— in the sublimity of its spectacle, — and its influence on the politics of the day. and the fortunes of war. It proved the quality of the American soldier, drew definitely the lines of party, and established the fact of open war between the colonies anil the mother country. It was a victory with all the moral effect of victory, under the name of defeat. And yet at first it was regarded with disappointment, and even with indignation and contemporary accounts of it, whether in private or official, are more in tone of apology, or of censure, rather than of exultation. The enterprise on the whole, was pronounced rash in the conception, and discreditable in the execution, and a severe scrutiny was instituted into the conduct of those who were charged with having contributed by their backwardness, to the result. No one, for years, came forward to claim the honor of having directed it, no notice was taken of its returning anniversary; and no narrative did justice to the regiments that were engaged, or the officers that were in command. Passing events are seldom accurately estimated. The bravery, however, of those who fought, was so resolute, and their self devotion was so lofty, as at once to elicit from all quarters, the most glowing commendation, and to become the theme of the poet and the orator, and as time rolled on, its connection with the great movement of the age appeared in its true light.

Hence the battle of Hunker Hill now stands as the grand opening scene in the drama of the American Revolution. General Joseph Warren exerted great influence in the battle. Having served zealously and honorably in the incipient councils that put in motion the machinery of the Revolution, he had decided to devote his energies to promotin it in its future fields. He was accordingly elected Major General, on the 14th of June but had not received his commission on the day of the battle. Though he is understood to have opposed the measure of occupying so exposed a position as Bunker Hill, yet he avowed the intention, if it should be resolved upon, to share the peril of it. and to the affectionate remonstrance of friends, he responded: dulce et decorum eat pro patria mori.

On the 16th of June he officiated as President of the Provincial Congress, passed the night at Watertown, and though indisposed repaired on the morning of the 17th to Cambridge, where he threw himself on a bed. When he learned that the British troops would attack the redoubts thrown up on Breed's Hill by the American soldiers, he declared his headache to be gone; and after meeting with the committee of safety, armed himself and proceeded to Charlestown. A short time before the action commenced he was seen in conversation with General Putnam at the rail fence, who offered to receive his orders. General Warren declined to give any, but asked where he could be most useful. Putnam directed him to the redoubt saying, "There he would be covered." "Don't think," replied Warren, "I come to seek a place of safety! But tell me where the onset will be most furious." Putnam still pointed to the redoubt. "That is the enemy's object and if that can be held, the day is ours."

General Warren passed to the redoubt, where the men received him with enthusiastic cheers as he entered their ranks. Here he was again tendered the command, this time by General Prescott. But Warren declined it — said that he came to encourage a good cause, and gave the heartening assurance that a reinforcement of two thousand men were on their way to aid them. He mingled in the fight, behaving with great bravery and was among the last to leave the redoubt. Ha was lingering even to rashness in his retreat, and had receded but a few rods when a British bullet struck him in the forehead and he fell to the ground. On the next day visitors to the battlefield, among them Dr. Jeffries and young Winslow, afterward General Winslow, of Boston, recognized the body, and it was buried on the spot where he fell. The British loss in killed and wounded was 1054, while the American loss incurred mainly in the last hand-to-hand struggle was 449. The British had gained the victory, but the moral advantage was wholly with the Americans.

Subsequently it developed that the American generals were aware that their troops had but three rounds of ammunition remaining, and no prospect of the supply being replenished.

After the British evacuated Boston on March 17th, 1776, the sacred remains of General Warren were sought after and again identified, they were first deposited in the Granary Burying Ground, then in a tomb under St. Paul's Church, and finally in the family vault in Forest Hills Cemetery.

General Joseph Warren was born in Roxbury. Massachusetts, June 11th, 1741, graduated at Harvard College 1759, and after teaching school in Roxbury for a few years commenced the practice of medicine.

NEW ENGLAND CRAFTSMAN, 1925

From New England Craftsman, Vol. XX, No. 9, June 1925, Page 293:

BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL

FrederickHamilton1925.jpg
Rt. Wor. Frederick W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary, Grand Lodge of Massachusetts

(Copyright 1925, by The Masonic Service Association of tlie United States. Reprinted by permission.)

The 17th of June, 1775, was one of those bright, quiet days which show the New England climate at very best. At daybreak the sleeping inhabitants of Boston and the neighboring towns were aroused by the continuous thundering of heavy guns from the upper harbor. Evidently something unusual even in those stirring times was happening. This is what it was.

Ever since the first British regiments had been sent to overawe the town of Boston some eight years before, the garrison had been increased from time to time until the British forces numbered about 10,000 men. General Gage was in command, and with him were Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne, all familiar names in the story of the next eight years. A few weeks before, on the 19th of April, a British detachment had attempted to destroy the ammunition and supplies which the Americans had gathered at Concord. The story of what happened that day need not he retold here. Its effect, however, was of the utmost importance. The resistance of the Colonists had been solidified and strengthened. The New England militia had gathered in large numbers around Boston, and their forces were constantly increasing. Their organization, however, was crude and imperfect. Washington had been appointed to take command of the Colonial troops, but had not yet reached the neighborhood of Boston. The troops surrounding Boston were under command of General Artemus Ward. General Ward was a man of the highest character and warmest patriotism but advanced in years and of moderate military ability. From his headquarters in Cambridge he was directing the operations which amounted practically to a siege. The Americans were in sufficient force and sufficiently well posted to hold the British closely confined to the city. It was unsafe for small parties of British to venture out, and General Gage did not care to precipitate hostilities by movements in force. Each side was watching the other warily: the Americans anticipating an attempt to break out and the British fearing movements which might make their position untenable.

Under these circumstances General Ward, on June 16, sent out a working party of about 1,200 men under Colonel William Prescott to fortify Breed's Hill, in Charlestown. It does not appear to have been General Ward's intention to bring on an engagement. He appears to have had in mind only the erection of fortifications which would block an attempt of the British to gain the open country by way of the pear-shaped peninsula of Charlestown neck behind it, an exit from the city which was not fortified. Arriving on the ground, however, Prescott went beyond Breed's Hill and fortified Bunker Hill, apparently forgetting the defensive nature of the movement ordered by Ward and considering that guns mounted on Breed's Hill would be able from that point to inflict much more damage on the British in Boston and their ships in the upper harbor. This was quite true, and was the deciding element, as we shall see, in bringing on the judgment. The position, however, was much more exposed and much less easily defensible than Bunker Hill.

The first troops were accompanied by Colonel Richard Gridley, who had commanded an artillery regiment in the French wars, and had considerable training as a military engineer; almost, if not quite, the only engineer officer then in the Colonial Service. Gridley commanded the artillery and laid out the fortifications.

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Battle of Bunker Hill,
From Painting by John Trumbull

At daybreak the Americans and their growing fortifications were seen from the British ships, which immediate1y opened fire, though with very little effect. The sound of the guns, and the news of what it signified, aroused Gage, who consulted witli his generals as to what should be done. Their decision was a very expensive blunder. It was agreed that heavy batteries on Breed's Hill would compel the evacuation of the city, exactly as it was compelled nine months later by Washington's hatteries on Dorchester Heights. There was no question that the Americans must be cleared out of that position. The position itself was a trap. The British had control of the water, and could move their troops upon it at will. Charlestown neck was narrow and could be swept by the fire of the English warships. Protected by this fire, it would have been perfectly possible to land a force which would have cut off the Americans and compelled the surrender of the entire force.

Gage was a British General of the old school, of the highest personal courage, but as arrogant and obstinate as he was brave. Concord and Lexington had taught him nothing. He did not believe that the New England militia, even behind breastworks, would stand for a moment before British regulars. He scorned to employ the obvious tactics which he would have used against an ordinary army. He probably felt that the moral effect of marching over the Americans' breastworks and sending their ill-trained defenders scuttling to the rear would be far greater than could be accomplished by scientific military manoeuver. Accordingly, at ten o'clock in the morning he issued a general order directing certain troops to assemble and march to the waterfront to be ferried across to Charlestown. The order is so drawn that it is impossible to tell at this time just what commands were indicated, or even their approximate strength. It is probable, however, that the total British force engaged, including reinforcements which were later sent over, was about 3,000 men, although some of the people of Boston reckoned it as high as 5,000. No official figures of the force engaged were ever published by the English.

The troops assembled as directed and paraded in a body through the streets of Boston. It was evidently Gage's intention to hold the ground occupied. It is an interesting side light on the military customs of the time to know that, although these men were sent out to fight, and would be separated from their base of supplies by a distance which could be traversed in two hours at the outside, they were sent out in full dress uniforms, and provided with heavy marching equipment and three days' rations. All this in the middle of a warm summer day. Such disregard of ordinary consideration for the comfort and effectiveness of soldiers on duty was characteristic of the English Army at this period, and long after. Knglish soldiers faced Hie climate of India in European uniforms and bearskin hats, while Lord Wolseley tells us that so late as 1853 he had to go into action in the steaming jungles of Burma in a close-fitting scarlet tunic with a high, tight collar.

At twelve o'clock the crossing to Charlestown began, and at three o'clock the British lines were formed for the assault and moved toward the breastworks. The British advance must have been a very beautiful spectacle. Their scarlet-clad lines moved forward with the regularity of the parade-ground, the sun reflecting in myriad points of light from the polished metal of their equipment and the rows of glittering bayonets.

Behind the American breastworks the militiamen were out of sight. Only Colonel Prescott, an experienced veteran of the French wars, walked coolly back and forth on the top of the breastworks, keeping his inexperienced and somewhat nervous men in order. The Americans had been ordered to hold their fire until the British had almost reached the breastworks and, with the exception of a few scattering shots from the nervous and impatient, the order was obeyed. When Prescott considered that the right time had come, he gave the order and a blast of fire destroyed the front ranks of the British. The first volley was followed by a rapid and continuous discharge before which in a few minutes the British broke and fled back to the shore.

In a few moments, however, discipline asserted itself, the officers reformed their men, and a second advance was made. In the meantime the town of Charlcstown had been set on fire by the British and the second assault was partly screened by clouds of smoke from the burning buildings. Again the Americans waited until the British were almost upon them, again the assailants were blasted away by the rifle fire of the defenders. British officers who had served at Fontenoy and other pitched battles on the Continent declared they had never experienced anything like it. A second time the British retreated.

Gage held a hurried consultation with his officers. The gravity of the situation was fully recognized, but British pride was not yet ready to admit defeat, and the possibility of being turned out of Boston by heavy guns which might be mounted in the American works, was again urged. Contrary to all teachings of military prudence, Gage ordered a third assault, which was delivered at five-o'clock. With extraordinary courage and tenacity the British returned to their apparently hopeless task. This time, however, the fire which received them was much less severe. They succeeded in placing some guns in position to rake the American works. The ammunition of the Americans was exhausted. Without bayonets, they had only stones and clubbed rifles with which to resist the British. Even so, they made a desperate resistance, and it was not until their defences were actually in British hands that they broke and streamed away over Charlestown neck, leaving the British in possession of the hill. It was in this last phase of the engagement that the greater part of the American losses were sustained. Among the killed and wounded at this point were Warren and Gridley and many other well-known American officers.

It is more difficult to estimate the number of Americans engaged than it is to estimate their opponents. Americans were coming and going all day, but it doubtful if more than 1,500 were actually engaged at any one time. General Gage admitted a loss of 1,054 killed and wounded. It is highly probable, however, that his loss considerably exceeded that number. General Ward's Orderly Book shows an American loss of 450, which probably substantially accurate.

In all probability the defeat of the Americans and their flight from the trap in which they had incautiously placed themselves saved them from much greater loss in the immediate future. Gage had put forth only a small part of his strength. If defeated, he would undoubtedly have renewed his attempt in a more scientific manner, and must eventually have destroyed or captured the entire American force in Charlestown.

The consequences of the battle were far-reaching. When Washington heard of it his first question was whether the Colonists stood their ground, and when informed that they did he expressed confidence in the outcome of the conflict. The British learned to have wholesome respect for the Americans, and recognized the fact that they had a war on their hands, and not a riot. The Americans throughout the Colonies were enraged at the bloodshed of this dreadful day. They too realized that they had a real war on hand and not an armed protest. After Bunker Hill it became increasingly clear that it was useless to hope any longer for an accommodation with the British Government, and that the issue of independence or complete subjugation was clearly drawn. Up to Bunker Hill most Americans still hoped to secure their rights under the British flag. After Bunker Hill that hope faded to nothingness.

Considering this momentous event, it is in the highest degree important that we of one hundred and fifty years later should remember exactly what it was for which the Americans fought. The animating spirit of the Revolution was not the assertion of nationality or a desire to be independent for independence's sake. Up to the day of Bunker Hill, and beyond it, that great majority of the American Colonists who were of English blood were, in heart and in mind, thoroughly devoted to England. They were nationalists to the core, but their nationalism was English nationalism. Their most cherished spiritual and intellectual possession was that heritage of rights and liberties and political ideals, traditions, and aspirations which had developed through the centuries on English soil and under the English flag. These had been flouted and invaded, not by the English people, but by the English Government.

The English Government had fallen into the hands of a race of petty German sovereigns. On the death of Queen Anne the Crown had passed to George, the Elector of Hanover, known as George I of England, who was succeeded in direct descent bv George II, and George III. who was King at the time of which I write. George I and George II were thoroughly German. George III — "Farmer George," as he liked to be called — prided himself on being an English gentleman. It is true that he was born in England, but all his inheritance, instincts, and traditions were German. The Hanoverian kings were never English in heart. Their political inheritance was German absolutism. They were impatient of English ideas, ignorant of English traditions, and unsympathetic witli English ideals. George III did indeed govern England through the ordinary machinery of the two Houses of Parliament and a Ministry, but at this time he dominated Parliament in both Houses through a group known as "The King's Friends." rhrough this domination of Parliament he was doing his best to substitute Ger-uan absolutism for English freedom. The treatment accorded the Colonies by the King and his Ministers was a part of this general plan. The age-long liberties of :he English people were in danger wher-sver the English flag flew, and it was for :hese liberties that the Americans took up arms.

The Americans had no means of breaking this un-English control of the government except by throwing off their allegiance to the mother country. The ordinary methods of political opposition or if resistance at the polls were not open to them. They were placed in the curious attitude of making war against the English Government in order to preserve or themselves the English political system. The success of the struggle for independence was the death blow of the personal government of the Hanoverian kings. Shortly after the end of the Revolutionary War, another revolution took place in England itself. This revolution is often overlooked because in its course not a shot was fired nor a life lost, but when it was over the principles of English liberty were reassured. "The King's Friends" had ceased to be a political power, and the way was clear for the development of the English Constitution and the government organized under if along its traditional lines. The Battle of Bunker Hill was as significant in the history of the English people as it was in the history of the Americans.

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Statue of Warren on Bunker Hill

The Battle of Bunker Hill, considered as the crucial incident in this great struggle, has a particular interest to Freemasonry. Its most obvious interest lies in the participation in it of prominent members of the Fraternity and the tragic death of the most conspicuous of them. Joseph Warren was Provincial Grand Master for North America under a Warrant from the Grand Master of Scotland. In that capacity he had shown the zeal and powers of leadership which distinguished him in other fields. He had been Provincial Grand Master only since 1769, but in that period had shown intense activity, and had not only greatly increased the number of Lodges under his charge, but had impressed them deeply with the vigor of his wise personality, and the earnestness of his Masonic convictions. As a citizen he had early identified himself with the patriotic party. Wise in counsel and energetic in action, he had taken a high position in that goup of leaders who will never be forgotten so long as American history is read.

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Joseph Warren Volunteering His Services to Gen. Israel Putnam
Before the Battle of Bunker Hill

He had been chosen President of the Massachusetts Congress, as the Legislature was then called, and held a commission as Major General. Unfortunately for the cause which was so dear to him, his ardent temperament and ear-Best desire to be of personal use led him to forget the great responsibilities of the two positions which he held. He did not stop to think that a life charged with such important duties and responsibilities was too valuable to his country to be risked on the battle-field. Waiving his rank, he rode to the battle-field and offered his services to Putnam, who shared the command with Prcscott, and asked to be put where he could be of the greatest use. He fought bravely in the ranks, and did his best to help the retreating troops get away with as little harm as possible, but was killed in the very last moments of the fight. Undoubtedly the death of so distinguished a leader and the example of his personal heroism was of immense influence at the time, and has made a lasting appeal to the patriotism and to the courage of generations. And yet one cannot help wishing that abilities and character so transcendant might have been spared for the service of his country.

Colonel Gridley, the engineer and artillery officer, who was wounded in the fight, was District Grand Master of the other Provincial Grand Lodge which was operating under the Warrant issued by the Grand Master of England in 1733. Putnam, who commanded the Connecticut contingent, and John Stark, who commanded the New Hampshire men, were both active and well-known members of the Fraternity. Others there were who shared their affiliations, but the time possible for the preparation of this article has not permitted the interesting task of tracing out these personal details.

Behind the personalities of the Masons who took a leading part on this historic day lie the principles of Freemasonry which inspired these men and many others to take the position they did when the great issues of the time were defined. We must remember, what we sometimes forget, that modern Freemasonry is distinctly an English institution. While ancient Freemasonry struck its roots far into a remote past and distant lands, the direct connection with these ancient Craftsmen and their thought and work can be traced only in England and Scotland. It was there that the Grand Lodges of our modern type were formed. It was there and in the preceding generations that Operative Masonry became slowly developed into Speculative Masonry. It was from there that Masonry spread to the English Colonies, and also to the Continent of Europe. Masonry, in other words, has grown up on English soil and in the English soul. Its fundamental principles of reverence for the Grand Architect of the Universe, truth, honor, and fair dealing between men, broad tolerance of individual opinion, and equality before the law, were at the same time the fundamentals of the best English political and social thinking. The best in English life expressed itself in Freemasonry, and nowhere outside of England could Freemasonry have found scope and support for its development. When Freemasonry came to America it made its appeal to the best hearts and minds in the community. Here, as elsewhere, the Masons, being a carefully selected and self-perpetuating group, were in advance of the development of the mass of their fellow-citizens.

Freemasonry, as an organization, was true to its immemorial principles of barring from the lodge-room all discussions of religion or politics, and refraining absolutely from any participation as an organization in any political movements. Whig and Tory sat side by side in Masonic Lodges. Boston patriots and soldiers from the English regiments quartered in Boston joined under the Charter of Saint Andrew's Lodge to form Saint Andrew's Royal Arch Chapter. Freemasonry did not desert its purpose of furnishing a common ground upon which honest men of all shades of opinion might meet on terms of mutual respect.

But Freemasons inevitably assumed positions of leadership on the side of the liberty of the citizen and the freedom of the individual. The same considerations which carried leading Freemasons of that day into the forefront of public life send the same call of duty to the Freemasons of today. The same devotion to high principle which made these men leaders and impressed their thought and personality so deeply on the history of that time will produce the same results today. It is not the cry of an alarmist to say that, our institutions are in danger. All good institutions are always in danger. The forces of selfishness, greed, ambition, treachery, ignorance, and superstition are part of human nature; they always have threatened the progress of the human race, and they alwav-s will threaten it in any future of which we need to take account. The same clear-sighted courage and indomitable energy which saved the day one hundred and fifty years ago are called for today. The present writer believes that the call will not fall on deaf ears, and that once again, as so many times in the past, the forces of righteousness will conquer.

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Lord Howe and the American Commissioners
In Conference, 1776

NEW ENGLAND CRAFTSMAN, 1932

From New England Craftsman, Vol. XXVII, No. 6, February 1932, Page 158:

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Erected A.D. 1794 by King Solomon's Lodge of Freemasons, Constituted at Charlestown 1783,
in Memory of Major General Joseph Warren and His Associates
who were slain on the memorable spit on June 17, 1775.

THE FIRST SOLDIER'S MONUMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
By DeBert Wakelee, Past Master, King Solomon's Lodge

In telling the story of this monument let me take you back to the days just after the close of the Revolutionary War to a room in Richard Trumbull's house in Charlestown on the day of August 20, 1783. There were gathered in that room eight men of Charlestown, all Masons. Each man had been active in some capacity in the long struggle for liberty which had just ended. They were Benjamin Frothingham. Eliphalet Newell, Edward Goodwin, David Goodwin, Josiah Bartlett, Joseph Cordis. Caleb Swan and William Calder. and they voted to present a memorial to the grand lodge asking for a charter for a Masonic lodge in Charlestown to be known as King Solomon's Lodge, and the same was duly presented to the grand lodge, and on September 5. 1783. this prayer being granted, a charter was issued and the lodge has been in continual operation since that date, with an unbroken line of records. At the Battle of Bunker Hill, Major General Joseph Warren (who was fighting as a private) was killed June 17. 1775. General Warren was Grand Master of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge, and as such his memory was dear to all members of the Craft, so that on November 11, 1794, at a meeting of King Solomon's Lodge (now of Somerville) it was voted that a committee be appointed to erect a monument in mean ory of our late brother, the Most Worshipful Joseph Warren. This monument was to be erected in the name of King Solomon's Lodge, and to stand in Mr. Russell's pasture (providing the land could be procured). The committee was authorized to draw upm the treasurer to defray the expenses of the same, and when the monument was finished, they report their doings to the lodge.

This committee: Bro. Josiah Bartlett, Bro. John Soley, Bro. Eliphalet Newell, Bro. William Calder, Bro. David Stearns, attended to their work most promptly, and on December 3, 1794, reported to the lodge as follows: That they first waited upon the Hon. James Russell for his permission to proceed and that he generously offered a deed of as much land as might be necessary for the purpose. They then proceeded to erect a "Tuscan Pillar" eighteen (18) feet in height, placed upon a platform eight (8) feet high. eight feet square and fenced around to protect it. On the top of the pillar was placed a gilt urn with the initials and age of General Warren enclosed in the square and compass. On the southwest side of the pedestal the following inscription appeared on a slate tablet:

"None but they who set a just value upon the blessings of Liberty are worthy to enjoy her." "In vain we toiled; in vain we fought; we bled in vain, if you our offspring want for valor to repel the assaults of her invaders." Charlestown settled 1628, hurnt 1775, rebuilt 1770. The enclosed land given by Hon. James Russell."

The committee recommended that the monument be placed under the immediate care of the master and wardens for the time being, whose business it shall be to visit the spot as occasion I may require and to keep it in complete repair at the expense of the lodge forever. Voted that the lodge proceed this day to dedicate this monument. At 2.00 P. M. a procession conducted by Right Worshipful Brother William Calder was formed, consisting of members, the magistrate) selectmen, minister and deacons, town treasurer and clerk, parish officers, officers of the artillery company, militia officers, citizens who had borne military commissions, trustees and scholars of the public schools. The address of the day was delivered by the worshipful master of the lodge. Brother John Soley, Jr. After the address, nine minute guns were fired by a detachment of the artillery company. The ceremonies of the day were closed with the following toast:

"May the fragrance of a good report, like the sprig of Cassia, bloom over the grave of every departed Brother."

The cost of the monument was about $500. This was the First Soldiers' Monument, erected by the first Masonic Lodge chartered in the country after the signing of the Treaty of of Peace between England and the Colonies. Treaty of Peace signed September 3, 1783. King Solomon's Lodge chartered September 5. 1783. At a meeting of the Lodge March 8, 1825, a committee was appointed to make a present of the "Land and Monument" to the Bunker Hill Monument Association.

On May 27, 1825, a communication was received from the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge requesting this Lodge to assist in laying a cornerstone of a magnificent monument to be erected in place of "Warren" Monument. General Lafayette assisted in the ceremonies and was presented a gold headed cane made from one of the posts of the original monument. On June 21, 1845, there was placed in the present monument a marble model of the original "Warren Monument." It was a notable Masonic occasion. Grand Lodges coming to attend from Maine, Connecticut New Hampshire. Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania. King Solomon's Lodge has continued the practice of visiting the monument on the evening of June 16th for the purpose of holding services and placing a wreath on the model of the first monument. These services are held at 5:00 P.M. and all members of the Craft and their families are cordially invited.

TROWEL, 1993

From TROWEL, Winter 1993, Page 10:

THE ORIGINAL BUNKER HILL MONUMENT
A paper presented before the Arlington Historical Society, April 25. 1961
by Bro. Ernest R. Moore

t is not generally known that the first Bunker Hill Monument is not the stately granite shaft that one sees on the hilltop today. The original monument of Bunker Hill was of wood. It was built, owned and, for over thirty years, maintained by King Solomon's Lodge of Freemasons of Charlestown.

The Lodge records of November 11. 1794, contain the following:

"Voted - That Brothers Josiah Bartlett, John Soley, Eliphalet Newell. William Colder and David Stearns be a committee to erect a monument in Mr. Russell's pasture provided the land can be procured) such as in their opinion will do honor to the Lodge, in memory of our late Brother, the Most Worshipful Joseph Warren. That they be authorized to draw upon the treasurer to defray the expenses of the same: and that when the monument is finished they report their doings to the Lodge."

The committee must have been anticipating its work, for only three weeks later, at a special meeting, on December 2. 1794. they made their report: in effect that they had waited upon the Hon. James Russell for his permission to proceed; that he generously offered a deed for as much land as might be necessary for the purpose: that they then proceeded to erect a Tuscan pillar, eighteen feet in height, placed upon a brick pedestal two feet high, and eight feet square, and fenced around to protect it from injury.

On the top of the pillar was placed a gilt urn with the initials and age of Dr. Warren, enclosed in the Square and Compasses. The inscription placed on the southwest side of the pedestal carved on a slate tablet stated that the monument was:

Erected A. D. 1794
by King Solomon's Lodge of Freemasons
constituted at Charlestown 1783
in Memory of
Major General Joseph Warren
and his associates who were slain
on this Memorable Spot June 17. 1775

At that same meeting on December 2. 1794. the Lodge voted to dedicate the monument at two o'clock in the afternoon. An imposing procession of Lodge members and town and parish officials and citizens, conducted by William Calder. was formed. They marched to the hill where an eloquent dedicatory address was delivered by the Master of the Lodge, Worshipful John Soley. Jr. Following the address, nine minute-guns were discharged by Capt. Smith's artillery company. The procession then returned to the hall, where Past Master Josiah Bartlett delivered the eulogy on General Warren.

The cost of the monument was about $500.

It would appear that the fence around the monument did not sufficiently serve its purpose of protection, for succeeding years the Lodge records have frequent mention of the damage caused to the monument by vandals and the offering of rewards for their apprehension.

In the following year 1795. the monument was damaged by persons unknown, and the same commute was directed to make such alterations as they deemed necessary for its preservation. The pedestal was then raised to a height of eight feet and a new tablet of suitable proportions was placed on the pedestal with tl additional inscription.

"None but they who set a just value upon the blessings of liberty are worthy to enjoy her."
"In vain we toiled; in vain we fought; we bled in vain - if you. our offspring, want valor to repel the assaults of her invaders."
Charlestown settled 1628; burnt 1775: rebuilt 1776.
The enclosed land given by Hon. James Russell.

The quotations were from Warren's oration at the Old South Church on March 5. 1772. on the observance of the second anniversary of the Boston Massacre.

The original slate tablet then came into the possession of Hon. James Russell, the donor of the land, on which! the monument stood.

For more than thirty years the Lodge continued toon the monument and the little plot of ground, occasionally making repairs and endeavoring to keep the structure \ presentable. Meanwhile a movement was under way for the construction of a more enduring memorial of the battle and in 1823 the Bunker Hill Monument Association was formed. On March 8, 1825, the Lodge voted to preset the land and the monument to the newly formed association.

Apparently, that was the signal for the vandal and the souvenir hunter to get busy, for the Lodge records of May 10. 1825, state that the monument having been destroyed by some person unknown, a committee was appointed to investigate with full powers to act.

The next month on June 17. 1825. King Solomon's Lodge assisted the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in laying the corner stone of a magnificent monument. The Lodge, on that occasion, presented to Illustrious Brother General Lafayette a gold mounted cane made from piece of one of the cedar posts of the original monument.

That seventeenth day of June in 1825 was one of the post famous days in the history of Charlestown. when the cornerstone of the monument was laid in the presence of General Lafayette and, when Daniel Webster, president of the association, delivered one of his greatest orations. The crowd, estimated at one hundred thousand. las by far the largest that had ever gathered in that llcinity. It seemed as though all New England had assembled on the slopes of the hill.

King Solomon's Lodge, naturally, took a prominent ■art in the celebration, as it did also on June 17. 1843. when the completed monument was dedicated and Daniel Webster was again the orator. On the latter occasion President John Tyler was present.

In 1825 when the Lodge presented the original monument with the land on which it stood to the Bunker |ll Monument Association, assurance was given that me trace of the former structure should be preserved; accordingly an exact model of the original monument erected in 1794 was made by one of the best artists in the country of the finest Italian marble and. with the permission of the association, the model was placed in a niche lie well room of the obelisk directly in front of the pee. Including the base on which it stands, the model is about nine feet in height.

On Saint John's Day, June 24, 1845. King Solomon's fee with the assistance of the Grand Lodge and other lies celebrated the completion and dedication of the model with suitable ceremonies.

For many years, with the exception of the war years when the monument was closed to the public and securely guarded against any possible sabotage by the enemy, the officers and members of King Solomon's Lodge have journeyed to Bunker Hill. memorial services, and decorated the model monument, usually on the evening preceding the anniversary of the battle.

How or when the slate tablet, which was on the original monument, got to Arlington will probably is remain a mystery.

It appears, however, that James Russell of West Cambridge - now Arlington, (who was not the Russell of Charlestown who gave the land e monument in 1794). built a tomb in the old Pleasant Street Cemetery at the rear of the Menotomy Meeting House, and in the brick wall of the tomb was inserted the old slate tablet, on the face of the tablet toward the wall and the back of the tablet toward the front, with this inscription carved on the reverse of the tablet:

No. 4
James Russell's Tomb
Built 1811

There the tablet remained until about 1860, when the wall having crumbled, the tablet fell out. A new stone of marble bearing the names of Mr. Russell and family was placed over the tomb, and this old slate tablet was cast aside by the workmen as unfit for further use.

In the summer of 1885. while repairs were being made on the old horse sheds of the Unitarian Church, that portion of the sheds behind the Russell tomb was torn down, and in the intervening space between the sheds and the wall of the tomb was found the "rejected stone."

A brother Mason residing in Arlington, seeing the stone, turned it over and read the ancient inscription on the other side.

Deeming this information of importance, it was removed to a place of safety, and the heirs of Mr. Russell were notified and were asked if it might be returned to King Solomon's Lodge by them, through the hands of Hiram Lodge.

At a meeting of Hiram Lodge on January 14, 1886. Brother Walter Russell, a grandson of Brother James Russell moved, and it was so voted:

"That the Worshipful Master be a committee to have the tablet suitably framed and present it to King Solomon's Lodge, in behalf of the heirs of Brother James Russell, at such time as might be agreeable to both Lodges."

That very agreeable time arrived on February 23. 1886. in the Lodge room in Thompson Square at the foot of Bunker Hill, when William H. Poole. Master of Hiram Lodge, presented the tablet to William N. Townsend. Master of King Solomon's Lodge, and the precious relic came home to its original owners.

In 1899 King Solomon's Lodge moved to Gilman Square. Somerville. and the tablet was installed on the wall of their apartments where it may be seen today.

TROWEL, 1998

From TROWEL, Winter 1998, Page 8:

Restoration and Rededication of the First Memorial on Bunker Hill
by Bro. Don Haska

On June 17, 1998, the newly restored marble model of the First Bunker Hill Memorial was rededicated by King Solomon's Lodge, A. F. & A. M., with the help and assistance of The National Park Service, Boston National Historical Park. This column was originally raised to honor the memory of Major General Joseph Warren and his associates who perished at the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775.

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Wor. Wayne Forsyth and the restored model of the first monument located in the inner chamber of the Bunker Hill Monument.

The marble model of the first wooden memorial was originally dedicated in 1845. It sits prominently at the base of the Bunker Hill Monument to greet all visitors to this former part of the Battle Site. The First wooden memorial was raised by King Solomon's Lodge. A. F. & A. M., then of Charlestown. now meeting in Somerville, MA. in December. 1794. When the Bunker Hill Monument Association proposed to erect a new, more "imposing and enduring" memorial to the veterans of the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1823, an agreement was reached with King Solomon's Lodge, who owned the property upon which the Monument now stands, which was then known as "Russell's Pasture" now known as "Breeds Hill." It was the desire of King Solomon's that some memory of the first wooden memorial would be placed within the Obelisk to continue to honor the memory of Joseph Warren and his fellow Patriots. Two years after the dedication of the Bunker Hill Monument, on St. John the Baptist Day. June 24. 1845, a lasting memorial was then offered on this hallowed spot. A nine foot model of the First Monument, made of the finest marble, was placed on the floor of the inner chamber, now called the well room, of the new monument. It was a column of pure white set on a base of dark gray granite directly in front of the entrance. A distinguished suite of Masons including R. W. John Soley. Grand Master Augustus Peabody and over seven hundred Masons from Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, participated in song, adulation and veneration.

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Wor. Wayne Forsyth and P.M. Fred Gill, presenting the wreath dedicated to Joseph Warren to the National Parks Service

The first monument was an 18 ft. wooden Tuscan Pillar set on an 18 ft. brick pedestal. Resting on the capital of the pillar, was a gilt urn, inscribed with the letters J. W. and the number of years, 33, set within a square and compasses. Dedicated to the leadership of the Most Worshipful Joseph Warren, who was found buried in a rough grave near this site, the wooden memorial suffered much from the growing anti-Masonic fervor beginning in the 1800's. The marble model of this monument has suffered as well. Due to the difficult conditions of the weather and an accident over forty years ago, the urn was broken and the shaft was cracked. Lost for a number of years, the urn was recovered by the Boston National Historical Park and in cooperation with King Solomon's Lodge, an effort to restore the marble model to pristine condition was instituted. Pictures were obtained from Grand Lodge archives with the help of Librarian Cynthia Alcorn, Technician, Wor. Mike Kaulback of Grand Lodge Museum and Bro. Don Haska of King Solomon's Lodge. The original urn was studied, a plan was proposed and a method devised to recast the urn using the original as a guide in order to restore the broken symbol. With the aid of National Park Service conservators and Bunker Hill Monument Site Supervisor, Ethan Beeler, the urn was then reconstructed. Under the watchful leadership of Wor. Wayne Forsyth. Master of King Solomon's Lodge, the marble model of the first Bunker Hill Monument was repaired and properly restored. The project was successfully completed and the rededication ceremony held on the evening of June 17th.

King Solomon's Lodge gratefully acknowledges the dedication of The National Park Service, Boston National Historical Park, to this restoration of the first memorial. Each year. King Solomon's Lodge, recalls the sacrifice of those early Patriots with a service honoring their memory on or about June 17. Present at this special rededication were Peter Steele, Deputy Superintendent, Boston National Historical Park, who spoke of the pressing need to repair this Memorial, the Lodge at the base of the monument and the Obelisk itself. Bro. John J. Alves, Secretary, Bunker Hill Monument Association and Ethan Beeler, BHM Site Supervisor both acknowledged the work of National Park Service, Northeast Region Chief Conservator Brigid Sullivan, Park Curator Gay Vietzke, Assistant Park Curator Phil Hunt, Conservators Carol Warner, Naomi Kroll and Neil Abelsma, Artisan Robert Sure, urn mold-maker and Charlestown resident Bro. Don Haska from King Solomon's Lodge for their scholarship, research and dedication. Wor. Wayne Forsyth, Master of King Solomon's Lodge, spoke of the great Masonic presence on this Site, of the many Masons who fought and died here for freedom, tolerance and brotherhood, of Bro. Paul Revere and Bro. Lafayette who were present at past memorials, of Bros. Bartlett and Soley and other Grand Masters who have paused on this site in memory of that Patriot who is almost forgotten in our public acclamation: Doctor, Major General, Provincial President and Most Worshipful Grand Master of Masons of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, Joseph Warren. A history of the first monument was given by Bro. Don Haska. P. M. Fred Gill gave the benediction recalling the enduring self-sacrifice of those who died there. Wardens James Norton and Maurice Haddad then laid a wreath at the base of the marble model. The service was concluded with a hearty collation at the Preble Room located next to "USS Constitution" in the Charlestown Navy Yard.

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Peter Steele, Deputy Superintendent, Boston National Historical Park; Wor. Wayne Forsyth, Master of King Solomon's Lodge; Ethan Beeler, BHM Site Supervisor; Bro. John J. Alves, secretary. Bunker Hill Monument Association, (in front of) Most Worshipful Joseph Warren. (The plaster cast of this statue, from which this work was carved is on the Grand Staircase at the Grand Lodge.)

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Bro. Don Haska, SD; Bro. Cazmis Kozerski, SS; Bro. Maurice Haddad, JW; Bro. Barrie Wilder, JS, King Solomon's Lodge, Somerville.